Thursday, September 3, 2020

Alexander the Great Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Alexander the Great - Essay Example From this paper plainly preceding overcoming the whole known world, Alexander ensured that his held onto all the force in Macedonia and Greece. Thus, having played out that, this incredible general drove his military to Asia Minor, at that point Palestine and inevitably Egypt. One should remember that around then Egypt was under the standard of Persians; that is the reason it was them who battled against Alexander, not the Egyptians. The last mentioned, indeed, didn't demonstrate any protection from him, welcoming him as a savior instead of an oppressor. To be sure, there were a few fights that Alexander won before entering Egypt. Consequently, after the skirmish of Issus, assaulting Tire and overcoming Gaza, his military matchless quality was clear. In Egypt he didn't present any critical change; a remarkable inverse, he guaranteed that he was the child of Zeus and Ammon and consented to be treated as a celestial ruler, as per the Egyptian traditions.As the conversation stresses P ersian Empire was the most grounded power in the area being referred to. It developed much before Alexander and was for the most part viewed as the predominant player. Be that as it may, it couldn't coordinate the military intensity of the Macedonian general. Many fights the Persian ruler Darius fled the war zone, leaving his troopers alone. It is very clear that after Alexander had the option to overcome the capital, the military men didn't bolster Darius who was continually fleeing from his adversary and murdered him.

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Greek Theater in 5th Century BCE Essay -- essays research papers

Greek Theater in fifth Century BCE      The Ancient Greeks, presumably one of the most intriguing civic establishments to examine contributed a few revelations and innovative progressions. One can not examine the Greeks without talking about Greek Theater however. Greek Theater prepared for writing and workmanship in later history from numerous points of view. On the off chance that it wasn’t for Greek Theater renowned play authors like Shakespeare would have never done what they are so very notable for. When examining Greek Theater it is basically inconceivable not to find out about it in the fifth Century BCE, and that is on the grounds that the fifth Century BCE was fairly energizing when it came to Greek Theater.      The source of Greek Theater in fifth Century BCE isn't known. Many theories exist, however there isn't generally any definitive hard proof. What is known then again is that catastrophes were first acted in Athens in sixth Century BCE, and that they were exceptionally straightforward. They just had one on-screen character and one ensemble. In the fifth Century BCE this changed however. A second and third entertainer were added to plays, however there were not any more then three talking on-screen characters in front of an audience on the double. All through fifth Century BCE the normal size of the melody was twelve through fifteen individuals.      The showy exhibitions were a piece of the love of the god Dionysus, the divine force of ripeness and wine. Out of the four celebrations of love for Dionysus, two them included dramatic perfo...

Saturday, August 22, 2020

History of the DIA :: essays research papers fc

History of the Defense Intelligence Agency      In the years following World War II, there were many turf fights battled between the insight organizations of the United States. The Central Intelligence Agency, which was made in 1947 with the death of the National Security Act, won the underlying fights. This organization had won both administrative status and spending authority and was to make suggestions for planning knowledge exercises; and to correspond, assess, and spread insight (Laqueur, 17). The demonstration was obscure be that as it may, and the new organization immediately moved to the job of maker of insight and immediately developed in size(Laqueur, 17).      By 1953, while headed by Allen Dulles, the CIA arrived at its stature of impact inside Washington. Dulles indicated little enthusiasm for insight coordination, yet was extremely close with President Eisenhower and with his sibling, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, he included extraordinary individual impact inside the organization (Laqueur, 18).      Unfortunately, Dulles’s last a very long time as Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) were hardship with debate. Excessively skeptical insight gauges offered approach to debate concerning the rocket hole between the USSR and America. Another insight calamity was the Bay of Pigs attack of Cuba. This activity further harmed the CIA’s notoriety and prompted Dulles’s excusal as DCI (Laqueur, 18). These knowledge disappointments made President Eisenhower be disappointed with the insight he was getting from the network. Another arrangement was required and Eisenhower moved to make a Joint Study Group to â€Å"determine better methods of adequately sorting out the nation’s military knowledge activities† (Raman).      This bunch suggested the making of a solitary source to oversee and organize all knowledge consumption, creation, examination, evaluation and scattering capacities inside the Department of Defense (DOD). This office would be mindful to the Secretary of Defense, and meet the insight needs of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and military units handled around the world (Raman).      Eisenhower’s term as President finished before the group’s suggestions could be executed, anyway the pennant was conveyed by the following organization. Robert McNamara, Secretary of Defense under President John F. Kennedy, acknowledged the group’s suggestion and made the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) (DNSA). McNamara had numerous explanations behind tolerating the gatherings suggestions. First among them was the varying appraisals of the rocket hole by every one of the administrations insight organizations. Another explanation was McNamara’s cost-cognizant disposition. He needed to blend the insight directorates of the various administrations to keep away from an assortment of knowledge offices in the Pentagon (Raman).

Free Essays on Slavery And The Kansas-Nebraska Act

The subject of servitude inside the new states turns into the frontal areas for what started to isolate early America into various gatherings that held various perspectives as well as had threatening vibe towards each other. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 worked up a lot of concern and promptly separated America into a few proslavery and abolitionist gatherings. America was so painstakingly isolated that individuals remained amazingly enthusiastic and very frantic to battle for their specific convictions. The trade off of 1850 looked for an approach to retouch the country yet rather it helped keep the country isolated. The huge outward relocation from the North and South to the new domains of America realized a colossal issue that necessary an answer. Would the new domains be slave states or free states? The Gadsden Purchase of very nearly 30,000 square miles added to the United States geologically and dangerously. From the outset it was felt that half of the region would be free and the other half would be slave. Kansas would be free and Nebraska would be slave. It wasn’t as simple as it appeared in light of the fact that shocked Northerners considered Nebraska a â€Å"atrocious plot† to make a â€Å"dreary district oppression possessed by experts and slaves† (Berkin p. 403). Berkin represents the seriousness of the dissimilarities between the convictions of the North and the South. The philosophies of the North and the South are not good choices engaged by humankind, they are material choices powered by financial intrigue. The North doesn't need the South to have the advantage of slave manors since this is an amazing preferred position financially and the South doesn't need their very worthwhile slave estates to be undermined. On the off chance that solitary this issue could have been anticipated, at that point perhaps struggle could have been saved. The Kansas Nebraska act passes a law that permits inhabitants of Kansas And Nebraska to conclude whether to permit subjection or not inside the states. Th... Free Essays on Slavery And The Kansas-Nebraska Act Free Essays on Slavery And The Kansas-Nebraska Act The topic of subjection inside the new states turns into the frontal areas for what started to partition early America into various gatherings that held various perspectives as well as had antagonistic vibe towards each other. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 worked up a lot of concern and promptly separated America into a few proslavery and abolitionist gatherings. America was so painstakingly isolated that individuals remained very energetic and amazingly edgy to battle for their specific convictions. The trade off of 1850 looked for an approach to retouch the country however rather it helped keep the country isolated. The monstrous outward movement from the North and South to the new domains of America achieved a colossal issue that necessary an answer. Would the new regions be slave states or free states? The Gadsden Purchase of just about 30,000 square miles added to the United States topographically and dangerously. From the outset it was believed that half of the region would be free and the other half would be slave. Kansas would be free and Nebraska would be slave. It wasn’t as simple as it appeared on the grounds that shocked Northerners considered Nebraska a â€Å"atrocious plot† to make a â€Å"dreary area oppression possessed by aces and slaves† (Berkin p. 403). Berkin represents the seriousness of the dissimilarities between the convictions of the North and the South. The philosophies of the North and the South are not good choices enabled by mankind, they are material choices filled by monetary intrigue. The North doesn't need the South to have the advantage of slave manors since this is an astounding favorable position monetarily and the South doesn't need their very worthwhile slave ranches to be undermined. On the off chance that solitary this issue could have been predicted, at that point perhaps strife could have been saved. The Kansas Nebraska act passes a law that permits occupants of Kansas And Nebraska to conclude whether to permit bondage or not inside the states. Th...

Friday, August 21, 2020

Migrating Business Critical Applications †Free Samples to Students

Question: Examine about the Migrating Business Critical Applications. Answer: Presentation As said by the Zhang, Cheng, Boutaba, (2010), Technology is improving being utilized by the few associations over the business to improve and empower their association execution. Krutz, Vines, (2010) proposed that One of the best mechanical advancements that have upset the manner in which business and individuals work in todays world in distributed computing. Execution of the distributed computing advances inside the association can offices communitarian stages from learning and research, improved administrations and adaptability abilities, high efficiencies, better consistence and security and access to driving innovation. According to the assessment and discoveries, it is seen that the association Commonwealth bank is directly experienced the issues related with the information taking care of and security. The perception likewise shows that association capacities its activities in all in general the world and the greater part of the clients are by and by getting to the administrati ons through cell phones; subsequently, information robbery related issues additionally thought about the primary issues for the association. In this way, the current report is mostly engaged upon the adequacy of the relief of the application and information sources into outer processing in association. Additionally the report likewise sympathized the security strategies that could processing innovation; uses to make sure about information or data. Aside from that the discoveries gives the viable end and suggestion to take care of the presence issues. With setting to money related administrations Partners of the association are for the most part financial specialists in business whose activities are resolved the aftereffect of the association choices. The partners of the associations are governments, clients, managers, financial specialists and so forth. The fundamental jobs and obligations of the partners is to settle on choice in regards to the venture and giving the point by point necessities about the money related arrangement; that causes the association to continue in advertise and accomplish set of goal in effective way (Krutz, Vines, 2010).. Aside from that partner of the association likewise submitting the essential assets and deciding the issues and dangers related with the association. According to the discoveries and assessment of the association present situation it is seen that the association isn't have the option to give powerful security to information that hampered the association execution in up and coming years. Interface between business partners and technologist is finished with the assistance of correspondence mode, for example, eye to eye correspondence, meeting, telephonic correspondence, and so on. Prior to the execution of the advances inside the association principle jobs and reponsiblteis of the technologist to give the all data to partners with respect to the task and how it help the association to perform adequately. Thusly the interface between the association partners and technologist is outlined utilizing partner correspondence graph that is appeared in underneath table; Partners Effect stake the venture what should be conveyed dangers President high Strategies and polices proprietors who discover institutional overseer techniques and approaches Advantages of the usage of the distributed computing innovation and expenses related with the venture (Takabi, Joshi, Ahn, 2010). Absence of lucidity with respect to favored techniques. Budgetary administration high Deal with the association budgetary framework cost related with the venture and the entirety of the gadgets, benefits regarding money related with the expenses Absence of spending arranging Administrator staffs Work the association new framework moderate It helps the association so as to adds to process configuration just as framework and testing Stressed over the outstanding task at hand increments and what preparing they will get. Specialized group They for the most part assists with building up the framework high how the framework is created and how testing is performed absence of knwonelge in regards to the venture According to the above correspondence diagram it is seen that cost and advantages identified with the venture is generally imperative. In addition, utilization of the distributed computing innovation association offers its administrations from anyplace and whenever. Distributed computing innovation gives the workplace anyplace on request conveyance condition that changes the way infrastrure, work area, LOB and capacity applications are conveyed to the customers (So, 2011; Chen et al., 2010; Chen, Zhao, 2012). Aside from that utilization of the distributed computing innovation inside the association uses can basically get to their information and data from anyplace by means of web. The innovation offers the distributed storage reinforcement, which implies the association can put away its data in cloud and access them from anyplace whenever. As said by the Catteddu, (2010), Cloud stockpiling and reinforcement additionally gives straightforwardness, costs viable, evacuation of weight in house the board and support. The innovation is convey the information stockpiling as administrations from the cloud supplier with the assistance of web just as charging registered on ability utilized in specific highlights. There are a few advantages related with the distributed computing advances; Accordingly, from the investigation and discoveries it is said that the partners settle on a powerful choice in regards to the improvement of the administrations and joining of the distributed computing innovation. Aside from that to actualize the distributed computing innovations at work environment association need to executes distributed computing administrative stock take that give a reviews of the nation existing principles and guidelines that executes to cloud benefits in Australia. The guidelines spread the scope of the authoritative understandings, customers insurance, information security and essential act. Security stances Security is the most imperative components for the association and causes them to ensure purchasers information and data in fruitful way. As said by the Catteddu, (2010), in present period the greater part of the association utilizes the past information and data to settle on choice in basic circumstances. According to the organization situation it is seen that entrance of the data of the association done by the clients experiencing issues getting to their own data from the association. In addition the perception likewise saw that arrange security additionally concerned one of the indispensable issues of the association in light of the fact that the association offers its administrations and items to clients in both national and global market. Aside from that it is seen that the association is experienced the information stockpiling issues that way to store tremendous measure of the information the association needs to require additional equipment framework that make high spending is sues before the association. Information penetrates is one of the fundamental segment and association security experts accepted that their associations security estimations to safe information on physical gadgets for example server are low. Assessing the situation it is reasoned that information breaking issues was bound to happen for bank that utilizes the server. Commandeering of record likewise considered the principle security issues of the association and it is done primarily by assailants (So, 2011). Programmers or aggressors ceaselessly screen the associations arrange situation and utilization of the malware code they can without much of a stretch access the association data and application programming. In the wake of getting to the association application programming they alter and get to the clients individual data for his motivation. In the event that the association experienced the security issues that they lose advertise certainty and clients fulfillment. In addition, the investigation shows that on the off chance that an association not actualizes better security approaches inside the association, at that point they can hamper their association execution and lose clients trust. Relocating association basic application and their related information source to an endless distributed computing encourages the association to accomplish high security, coordinated effort and portability. As said by the Takabi, Joshi, Ahn, (2010), distributed computing technogly offers the association to give significant level of the security convention and to ensure information assurance. The distributed computing innovation actualizes high security conventions including solid access controls, information encryption procedure, security insight. Aside from that distributed computing offers the virtualization security to the association that implies it gives the virtual server and application and it is difficult from the aggressors or programmers to decide the specific area where information is put away. Aside from that the primary security of the distributed computing innovation is to upgrade security programming support and instrument. As per the Krutz, Vines, (2010), Cloud process ing innovation has an adequately capacity to grow progressively refined security methodology that causes the association to make sure about clients individual data and information. Expenses related with the distributed computing technogly are less when contrasted with the physical information stockpiling. Also, distributed computing innovation give application programming interface that gives association the chances to redo their cloud cost better way. Execution of the distributed computing innovation at working environment causes the association to recoup information, long haul reasonability, researched support, lower upkeep costs, excess and flexibility. According to the assessment and discoveries it is seen that the association must need to actualize relocate its application and information store in distributed computing innovation since it encourages them to make sure about its information as well as accomplish high clients experience. In association point of view, in the event that they fuse this innovation at working environment, at that point they decreases its additional equipment costs, support

Thursday, August 13, 2020

Sample Esaay on Digital Computer Crime

Sample Esaay on Digital Computer Crime Digital Computer Crime Oct 28, 2019 in Law Introduction The term cybercrime refers to any crime committed by using a computer and the Internet to purloin persons identity with malevolent programs. Computer crimes are inexorably becoming more advanced and threatening to both individuals and organizations. Cyber-attacks against computers and critical infrastructure are increasing in a consistent manner. This essay will address different types of computer crimes, common forms of digital crimes and responses taken by the United States to combat computer crimes. Body The primary four classes of computer crimes comprise cyber warfare, cyber extortion, computer fraud and cyber terrorism. First, cyber warfare is usually a political crime related to the interests of a state or worldwide group. Its goal is to attack and harm another states computers or other vital system. Such an attack can be carried out through the use of computer viruses or denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. For instance, in the United States digital infrastructure is protected by the military nullifying the detrimental effects of cyber warfare. Second, cyber extortion involves using the Internet by a person to demand money, services, or other goods from another individual by intimidating them to impose harm on their reputation or property. An example of cyber extortion could be considered denial-of-service attack where the malicious attacker subjects the email server or computer system to repeated denial of service and demands money in order to stop the attacks. For instance, cyber extortion attack occurred in Sony Pictures in 2014. Chat now Order now Third, computer fraud is a fraud performed by informational systems, such as Internet devices or services. The main goal of this crime is to gain money or data by deceptive means. It encompasses bank fraud, identity theft, and theft of information. Lastly, computer-generated terrorism is a crime usually committed by terrorists to threaten peaceful population or overturn the regime of the public enemy. Stohl claims, It also includes the use of the computer system gears to close down dangerous state organization like carriage, administration tasks, and energy. This susceptibility of cyber sabotage is conveyed about by reliance on computer grids in actions by countries and dire organization (2006). An unfriendly group of people or country could take on the rebound of the enemy to infiltrate ill fortified computer system, upsetting and even closing down pressing tasks. The risk of virtual dangers is frequently connected with extremists who seek to take revenge. Terrorists hack into structures with the intention of inflicting severe damage. Under computer terrorism, there is a category of computer virus which can be well-defined as a self-replicating computer program that works by implanting duplicates of itself into other executable forms or code. Lewis clarifies, It works like natural infections, disseminating by implanting itself into existing cells. The addition of a virus into the program known as an impurity. The diseased file, or the executable encryption that is not portion of a file is characterized a host (2002). Viruses are one of the numerous forms of cruel software or malware. Some viruses can be deliberately dangerous as they could erase information or cause irreparable damage; others are non-threatening or just irritating. Some kinds of them have so-called retarded ignition, commonly denoted to as a bomb. The main destructive result of viruses is their unrestrained self-reproduction which trashes and overpowers computer properties. Like other cyber-attacks, viruses are becoming extra painful, destructive, and challenging. They spread very fast and have large zone of damage. The most common forms of digital crimes are phishing, identity theft, hacking, and grooming. Phishing involves obtaining personal information through the use of fake email messages from Internet users. Hacking, in turn, involves misusing or shutting down websites and computer networks. Identity theft is usually connected with misusing of personal information for lucrative purposes. Finally, Internet grooming is a practice of befriending with persons online, usually with children, in order to abuse them sexually. The government of United States has taken significant steps to combat computer crimes through the use of the following methods. Firstly, the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) is accountable for executing the Departments nationwide policies in battling computer and logical property crimes internationally. Intellectual Property Section has developed to be an essential part of the U.S tax institutions. In pursuant to these ideas, CCIPS counsels frequently solve intricate problems, deal with exceptional legal and fact-finding matters raised by developing of the computer and telecommunications skills throughout the world. Regarding hearing of cases, it provides necessary information to other prosecutors, federal and local law administration staff. It also recommends and introduces legislations, subscribes and partakes in global efforts to counter intellectual property and computer crimes. By the end of 1998, the National Institute of Justice had selected a supervision team comprising TriData Corporation, U.S. Tennessee Valley Authority Police, U.S Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, and U.S Department of Justice (DOJ) to solve daily tasks. This team has a number of responsibilities concerning digital crimes, including research and investigations, developing of defensive measures, etc. It also is directed at combating of terrorism and extremism, finding and advancing scientific ways and evidence concerning the issue. .fod-banner { display: table; width: 100%; height: 100px; background-color: #04b5af; background-image: url('/images/banners/fod-banner-bg-1.png'), url('/images/banners/fod-banner-bg-2.png'); background-position: left center, right center; background-repeat: no-repeat; } .fod-banner .button { min-width: 120px; } .fod-banner-content { height: 100px; display: table-cell; vertical-align: middle; color: #ffffff; width: 100%; text-align: center; padding-top: 5px; padding-bottom: 5px; } .fod-banner-content > span:first-child { font-size: 15px; font-weight: 100; } .fod-banner-content-discount-text { font-size: 16px; } .fod-banner-content-discount-text span { font-size: 18px; color: #ffe98f; font-weight: bold; } .fod-banner-content-image { vertical-align: middle; } .fod-banner img.fod-banner-content-image { width: auto; } @media all and (min-width: 993px) and (max-width: 1320px) { .fod-banner { background-image: none; } } @media all and (min-width: 845px) and (max-width: 992px) { .fod-banner-content > span:first-child { font-size: 18px; } .fod-banner-content-discount-text { font-size: 20px; } .fod-banner-content-discount-text span { font-size: 24px; } } @media all and (max-width: 740px) { .fod-banner { background-image: url('/images/banners/fod-banner-bg-2.png'); background-position: right center; background-repeat: no-repeat; } } @media all and (max-width: 670px) { .fod-banner { background-image: none; } .fod-banner-content { padding: 15px 10px; } .fod-banner img, .fod-banner-content-discount-text { display: block; margin: 0 auto; } .fod-banner-content > span:first-child { font-size: 28px; } .fod-banner-content-discount-text { font-size: 20px; } .fod-banner-content-discount-text span { font-size: 24px; } } Limited time offer! Get 15% OFF your first order Order now In addition, it should be mentioned that Department of Homeland Security is also working on the defensive measures against computer terrorism. According to Dhillon, It works to stimulate consciousness on virtual safety and statistical knowledge amid all internet operators. The section also cooperates with the monetary and other serious groundwork areas to expand network security (1999). The Department has various branches such as the United States Secret Service and United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement which collectively combat cyber-crimes. The Secret Service upholds Electronic Crimes Task Forces (ECTFs) which focus on recognizing and tracking cyber crooks linked to cyber incursions, bank scam, facts cracks and other computer-related crimes worldwide. The Secret Services Cyber Intelligence Section has openly backed the capture of most sought cyber criminals. The Secret Service similarly runs the National Computer Forensic Institute, which offers law implementation offic ers and magistrates with cyber exercise and facts to fight the cyber misconduct. Though numerous attempts to combat cyber crimes have been undertaken, the government and namely law enforcement agencies should not forget about constant developing of preventive strategies. For instance, cyber security responsiveness should be attained among the Internet users. Besides, it is important to devise special programs to prevent cyber attacks, as it is usually easier to take preventive measures beforehand instead of dealing with full-fledged crimes. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be seen that with the advancing of informational technologies computer crimes have spread worldwide and critical measures should be employed by the all countries to curb furtherance of this malefaction. Nowadays there exist several types of computer crimes, such as cyber warfare, cyber extortion, computer fraud, and cyber terrorism. On the Internet people could encounter with phishing, identity theft, hacking, and grooming. Though government is taking needed steps to combat cyber crimes, preventive measured should also be taken into account. The fights against computer crimes should be fought not only by the US legislators, prosecuting attorneys, security development authorities, but also by all computer users.

Sunday, June 21, 2020

A Critical Analysis of the Documentary Supersize Me by Morgan Spurlock - Free Essay Example

In 2004, the American film-maker Morgan Spurlock made a documentary film Supersize Me. Produced in response to the unsuccessful legal suits against McDonalds fast food, the film brings to light Spurlocks own experiment with eating fast food and, above all, addresses those Americans who are obsessed with unhealthy fast food. The film-maker conducted the experiment for a month, during which he ate food only from McDonalds and observed the impact of fast food on his physical and emotional well-being. The more he ate in MacDonalds, the more side-effects he experienced, including depression, fatigue, sexual problems, headache, and chest pain. The camera captures all emotional and physical changes which occur in Spurlock. The film-maker cooperates with three doctors (a gastroenterologist, a cardiologist, and a general practitioner) who indicate the changes in his physical and psychological state (Sheehan, 2005, p.69). However, the principal idea to which Spurlock constantly returns throughout his documentary is that McDonalds fast food increases obesity in the United States (Sheehan, 2005, p.68). As is shown in the documentary, the weight of Spurlock before the experiment was 84 kg. In a period of one month, his weight increased up to 95 kg (Lusted, 2008, p.33). In addition to the weight increase, his cholesterol level changed from 168 to 230 (Sheehan, 2005, p.69). Observing such a damaging impact of fast food on patients health, the doctors recommended Spurlock to stop eating fast food in McDonalds. Although a low-budget documentary (with a budget only $65,000), Supersize Me has acquired great popularity among the national and international public due to its crucial social commentary on the issue of increasing obesity (Baym and Gottert, 2013, p.159). Spurlocks film consists not only of his own reflections and investigations, but also of a series of interviews which he took in the process of experiment (Day, 2011, p.116). Through his interviews with nutritionists, gym teachers, doctors, lawyers, cooks, and other experts, the film-maker attempts to gather diverse views on fast food eating and the fast food culture of modern America. In addition to the interviews, Spurlock also spreads a survey among children and finds out that they know perfectly well who Ronald McDonald is and know nothing about Jesus or George Bush. As is shown by Spurlock, McDonalds encourages children to eat fast food by organising birthdays and giving children free toys with its Happy M eals. To make his film more vivid, interactive, and factual, Spurlock uses cartoon animation (e.g. when showing how McNuggets are produced), statistics, and graphics (Day, 2011, p.116). Some statistical data are rather disturbing; for instance, the evidence gathered by the film-maker suggests that over 60 percent of Americans suffer from obesity and diabetes because of eating unhealthy fast food (Fazekas, 2005, p.144). Besides, 10,000 fast food advertisements are shown on television annually, attracting attention of not only adults, but also children (Fazekas, 2005, p.144). Throughout the documentary, the film-maker employs the shock techniques to evoke powerful emotions and reactions in his viewers. For instance, he depicts liposuction surgery, his own vomiting during the second eating of McDonalds meals, the numerous images of obese Americans, and school childrens addictive ingestion of harmful food. Spurlock also constantly returns to his own fast food addiction, demonstrating that he feels good only when he eats McDonalds food. While at the beginning of his experiment Spurlock looks and feels healthy, his physical and emotional state becomes worse with the progression of the experiment. Spurlocks girlfriend acknowledges that he smiles less than before, has sexual dysfunction, and depressive moods. Spurlock also demonstrates his own fears over the health problems which occur during the experiment. For instance, he depicts that one night he wakes up because of his inability to breathe. He is so afraid of this side-effect that he doubts whether to continue the experiment that threatens his life. However, Spurlock decides to finish the experiment even at the expense of his physical and emotional health. At the end of the film, Spurlock shocks his viewers by stating that he restored his physical and emotional health for about 14 months. He also shows a tombstone for the clown Ronald McDonald and asks his viewers: Who do you want to see go first, you or them? In addition to the use of shock techniques, the film-maker also uses comparative techniques. For instance, he contrasts American schools with fast food meals and soda machines to a school for troubled teenagers in Wisconsin where fast food was substituted for natural food (Fazekas, 2005, p.145). As Spurlock demonstrates, this food change has positively influenced childrens emotional well-being and behaviour. The film-maker gathers peoples opinions and visits McDonalds restaurants not only in Manhattan, but also in other American cities, such as Texas and California. By using both shock techniques and comparative techniques, Spurlock makes an attempt to engage the public into a dialogue on the issue of fast food eating. He also encourages parents to reconsider their childrens eating in McDonalds and their own responsibility for childrens healthy development. As Spurlock clearly shows in his documentary, parents are responsible for developing healthy eating habits in their childre n; otherwise, the consequences of their neglect will be detrimental for their children. In addition to parents irresponsibility, Spurlock also speaks against constantly increasing advertising of fast food. Although McDonalds claims that the company does not bear responsibility for peoples decision to eat fast food, it spends billions of dollars on advertising its products (Fazekas, 2005, p.144). To make things worse, Spurlock compares the amount of money which fast food companies spend on advertisements to the amount of money which healthy food organisations spend on advertisements. The figures he brings to the fore clearly demonstrate that the budget of healthy food organisations is significantly lower than the budget of fast food companies. In addition to his appeals to parents, advertisers, and the general public, Spurlock also appeals to the American government which fully neglects the reasons for peoples visits of McDonalds and consumption of unhealthy fast food. For instanc e, he shows the community which has no playground for children; hence, parents go to McDonalds because it has a playground. In other scenes, the film-maker focuses on school meals, demonstrating that schools often purchase fast foods for children because it is cheaper to buy fast foods than to prepare fresh meals. In view of such limited choices, children have to consume fast food instead of consuming healthy food. All these examples mentioned in Spurlocks documentary signify that both the government and educational establishments maintain the fast food culture to gain their own profits. Spurlocks documentary consists of several sections, each of which brings to light a new factor for his criticism of fast food eating. The film-maker often employs humour and satire in his discussion of a serious issue. On the one hand, this makes his documentary significantly entertaining. On the other hand, Spurlock succeeds in producing a black comedy which heavily relies on the elements of com edy to spread some crucial messages. This is especially evident in the scene when the American family tries to perform the Pledge of Allegiance near the White House, but forgets the words and starts singing McDonalds song. Although such scenes evoke laugh, they also make people think. Spurlock intentionally introduces funny elements to destroy peoples barriers and encourage them to perceive crucial information. As Supersize Me has clearly shown, such a technique is really successful as people tend to create barriers to somebody elses views and opinions; they tend to perceive these views with caution and distrust. However, when views and opinions are presented in a light, funny, and entertaining manner, people are more willing to accept them and, more importantly, believe the speaker. The film-maker also integrates music (e.g. Fat-Bottomed Girls by Queen) and new phrases (such as McStomach Ache or McTwitches) into his documentary to create appropriate mood and atmosphere. Besides, Sp urlock pays great attention to details (e.g. a hair in his food), uses entertaining pictures when changing the scenes, and effectively combines video and graphics. The use of all these techniques signifies that Spurlock attempts to produce not only a reflexive film, but also a highly experimental and dynamic film. Due to a masterful juxtaposition of techniques, Spurlock gradually engages viewers into the discussion. However, instead of providing a balanced standpoint, the film-maker expresses a significantly biased view on popularity of fast food eating in the United States. As such, the results of Spurlocks non-scientific experiment can be exposed to some criticism. For instance, Guy Russo, the chief executive of Australian McDonalds, opposed the view expressed by Spurlock by claiming that people do not eat fast food every day for three times (Gumbel, 2004, n.p.). Russo also criticised Spurlocks decisions not to do physical exercises and double his usual food intake during the e xperiment. In his viewpoint, such irresponsible and extreme actions, but not fast food eating had detrimental effects on Spurlocks physical and emotional well-being (Gumbel, 2004, n.p.). Klosterman (2006, p.65) points at the fact that Spurlock exaggerates the negative impact of fast food on his health because it is impossible to sell a movie about eating fast food and feeling fine. Klosterman (2006, p.65) also asserts that instead of putting the blame for eating fast food on an individual person, Spurlock puts the major blame on McDonalds and the American government. However, in the viewpoint of Klosterman (2006, p.66), McDonalds only gives people the product they want. Despite the mentioned critical comments, Spurlock has succeeded in producing a very important documentary which questions increasing popularity of fast food eating and makes the public and the American government reflect on the issues of unhealthy food and obesity. The film-maker has taken active steps in recognis ing a serious problem and in stirring up peoples emotional responses to the problem of unhealthy fast food and obesity. Throughout the documentary, Spurlock tries to convince viewers that fast food is a really bad choice; by bringing to light his recollections of childhood eating habits (e.g. when his family gathered together and ate home-made food), the film-maker demonstrates that such eating habits are significantly healthier and benefit children more than visits to McDonalds restaurants. As for Spurlocks biased views on fast food eating, it is necessary to take into account that the film-maker attempts to produce a point of view documentary which draws on the subjective approach and is strongly skewed toward a certain viewpoint (Lees, 2010, p.99). According to this distinct viewpoint, it is not only unhealthy menus of McDonalds and other fast food restaurants that pose a threat to the physical and mental well-being of children and adults, but the impact of fast food culture on p eoples values and lifestyles. Spreading fast food culture throughout America, corporations serve their own interests, while fully neglecting the needs and interests of common people. Although McDonalds fast food is inexpensive and tasty, the excessive consumption of this food (as Spurlock has clearly shown in his documentary) may be poisonous to the body of an adult, let alone to the body of a growing child. Spurlocks decision to focus on McDonalds restaurants does not mean that the film-maker has a personal dislike for McDonalds. His choice is explained by the fact that McDonalds is the largest company in the American fast food industry. Hence, by attacking McDonalds, Spurlock expresses his criticism of the whole fast food industry which manipulates people and makes them develop unhealthy eating habits. Although at times Spurlock turns to exaggerations, his documentary is perceived as a realistic account of the situation with American fast food eating. The film-maker intentional ly exaggerates some facts to accentuate the seriousness of unhealthy eating and obesity. In response to Spurlocks documentary, McDonalds has diversified its menu with some healthy food and has taken away the supersizing option (Sood, 2004, n.p.; Lusted, 2008, p.34; Baym and Gottert, 2013, p.159). Moreover, McDonalds has also started to provide information on fat content and calories so that McDonalds visitors can decide for themselves what to eat. As such, Spurlocks film has inspired slight changes in the American industry of fast food. Bibliography Baym, G. Gottert, C. (2013). 30 days. Social engagement. In: E. Thompson J. Mittell (Eds.), How to watch television (pp.159-167). New York: New York University Press. Day, A. (2011). Satire and dissent: Interventions in contemporary political debate. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Fazekas, I. (2005). The alkalizing diet: Your life is in the balance. Virginia Beach: A.R.E Press. Gumbel, A. (2004). The man who ate McDonalds. The Independent, 18 April. Available from: [Accessed 17 April, 2015] Klosterman, C. (2006). Chuck Klosterman IV: A decade of curious people and dangerous ideas. New York: Simon Schuster. Lees, N. (2010). Greenlit: Developing factual/reality TV ideas from concepts to pitch. London: AC Black Publishers. Lusted, M. (2008). Obesity and food policing. Edina: ABDO Publishing. Sheehan, M. (2005). Supersize Me: A comparative analysis of responses to crisis by McDonalds America and McDonalds Australia. In: C. Galloway K. Kwanash-Aidoo (Eds.), Public relations issues and crisis management (pp.67-80). Melbourne: Thomson Social Science Press. Sood, S. (2004). Weighing the impact of Super Size Me. Alternet, 29 June. Available from: [Accessed 18 April, 2015]